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John Garner's Technical Blog
John GarnerJohn Garner, Manager

What's New and on the Manager's Mind

A blog dedicated to answering technical questions in an open format relating to products from PolySciTech, a division of Akina, Inc.


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PLGA from PolySciTech used in development of Rapamycin-delivery microparticles for arthritis treatment

Wednesday, May 13, 2020, 3:09 PM ET


Arthritis is a disease driven by several causes but categorized by an immune response in the cartilidge which leads to damage of the tissue. Rapamycin modulates this immune response and can reduce the progression of arthritis. Recently, researchers at Indian Institute of Science (India) used PLGA (AP041) from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) to develop Rapamycin-releasing microparticles. This research holds promise to provide for treatment against arthritis. Read more: Dhanabalan, Kaamini M., Vishal K. Gupta, and Rachit Agarwal. "Rapamycin-PLGA microspheres induce autophagy and prevent senescence in chondrocytes and exhibit long in vivo residence." bioRxiv (2020). https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.06.027136v1.abstract

“Osteoarthritis (OA) is a joint disease that results in progressive destruction of articular cartilage and the adjoining subchondral bone. The current treatment is focused on symptomatic relief due to the absence of disease-modifying drugs. The primary cells of the cartilage, chondrocytes, have limited regenerative capacity and when they undergo stress due to trauma or with aging, they senesce or become apoptotic. Autophagy, a cellular homeostasis mechanism has a protective role in OA during stress but gets downregulated in OA. Rapamycin, a potent immunomodulator, has shown promise in OA treatment by autophagy activation and is known to prevent senescence. However, its clinical translation for OA is hampered due to systemic toxicity as high and frequent doses are required. Hence, there is a need to develop suitable delivery carriers that can result in sustained and controlled release of the drug in the joint. In this study, we have fabricated rapamycin encapsulated poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) based carriers that induced autophagy and prevented cellular senescence in human chondrocytes. The microparticle (MP) delivery system showed sustained release of drug for several weeks. Rapamycin-microparticles protected in-vitro cartilage mimics from degradation, allowing sustained production of sGAG, and demonstrated a prolonged senescence preventive effect in vitro under oxidative and genomic stress conditions. These microparticles also exhibited a long residence time of more than 19 days in the joint after intra-articular injections in murine knee joints. Such particulate systems are a promising candidate for intra-articular delivery of rapamycin for treatment of osteoarthritis.”


PLGA-PEG-NH2 from PolySciTech used in development of photodynamic/x-ray therapy against colorectal cancer

Wednesday, May 13, 2020, 11:53 AM ET




Researchers at University of New South Wales, The University of Sydney, and Macquarie University (Australia) used PLGA-PEG-NH2 (AI058) from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) to create photosentizing nanoparticles to apply in conjunction with X-ray therapy to treat cancer cells. This research holds promise to provide for improved cancer therapies. Read more: Deng, Wei, Kelly J. McKelvey, Anna Guller, Alexey Fayzullin, Jared M. Campbell, Sandhya Clement, Abbas Habibalahi et al. "Application of Mitochondrially Targeted Nanoconstructs to Neoadjuvant X-ray-Induced Photodynamic Therapy for Rectal Cancer." ACS Central Science (2020). https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acscentsci.9b01121

“In this work, we brought together two existing clinical techniques used in cancer treatment—X-ray radiation and photodynamic therapy (PDT), whose combination termed X-PDT uniquely allows PDT to be therapeutically effective in deep tissue. To this end, we developed mitochondrially targeted biodegradable polymer poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanocarriers incorporating a photosensitizer verteporfin, ultrasmall (2–5 nm) gold nanoparticles as radiation enhancers, and triphenylphosphonium acting as the mitochondrial targeting moiety. The average size of the nanocarriers was about 160 nm. Upon X-ray radiation our nanocarriers generated cytotoxic amounts of singlet oxygen within the mitochondria, triggering the loss of membrane potential and mitochondria-related apoptosis of cancer cells. Our X-PDT strategy effectively controlled tumor growth with only a fraction of radiotherapy dose (4 Gy) and improved the survival rate of a mouse model bearing colorectal cancer cells. In vivo data indicate that our X-PDT treatment is cytoreductive, antiproliferative, and profibrotic. The nanocarriers induce radiosensitization effectively, which makes it possible to amplify the effects of radiation. A radiation dose of 4 Gy combined with our nanocarriers allows equivalent control of tumor growth as 12 Gy of radiation, but with greatly reduced radiation side effects (significant weight loss and resultant death).”


PLGA from PolySciTech used in development of nanoparticle therapy for skin cancer

Wednesday, May 13, 2020, 11:52 AM ET



Photodynamic therapy is a process in which cancer cells are targeted with a chemical substance that remains dormant until it is illuminated by a specific wavelength of light which activates it killing the cell. This two-step process minimizes damage to healthy cells which is a common side-effect of conventional chemotherapy. Recently, researchers at Wroclaw University (Poland) used PLGA (AP022) from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) to develop photosensitizing nanoparticles which are uptaken into melanoma (skin cancer) cells. This research holds promise to provide for improved cancer therapies in the future. Read more: Bazylińska, Urszula, Dominika Wawrzyńczyk, Anna Szewczyk, and Julita Kulbacka. "Engineering and biological assessment of double core nanoplatform for co-delivery of hybrid fluorophores to human melanoma." Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry (2020): 111088. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0162013420301161

“Abstract: We investigated new development in photodynamic therapy (PDT) aiming at enhanced tumor selectivity and biocompatibility, which included application of a third-generation photosensitizing agent, i.e. xanthene-origin Rose Bengal (RB) co-encapsulated with up-converting NaYF4 nanoparticles (NPs) co-doped with lanthanide ions: Er3+ (2%) and Yb3+ (20%). The hybrid fluorophores were applied as components of double core nanocarriers (NCs) obtained by double (multiple) emulsion solvent evaporation process. Next to improve the biocompatibility and photodynamic activity, biodegradable polymer: poly(lactide-co-glycolide) – PLGA and non-ionic surfactants with different hydrophobicity: Span 80 and Cremophor A25, were used. After the engineering process, controlled by dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements, ζ-potential evaluation, transmission electron and atomic force microscopy (TEM and AFM) imaging, as well as optical analysis provided by measurements of the up-conversion emission spectra and luminescence kinetics for encapsulated only NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+ NPs and co-encapsulated RB + NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+ molecules, spherical polyester NCs with average size


PLGA, PLGA-NH2, PLGA-NHS from PolySciTech used in development of brain-cancer treating nanoparticle

Wednesday, May 13, 2020, 11:51 AM ET


Glioblastoma (a form of brain cancer) is often a fatal disease with poor prognosis. Recently, researchers at Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) used PLGA (AP060), PLGA-NH2 (AI062), and PLGA-NHS (AI116) from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) to create temozolomide loaded nanoparticles for brain-cancer therapy. This research holds promise to provide for improved therapy against this fatal disease. Read more: Smiley, Shelby B. "Targetable Multi-Drug Nanoparticles for Treatment of Glioblastoma with Neuroimaging Assessment." PhD dissertation, IUPUI, 2020. https://scholarworks.iupui.edu/handle/1805/22683

“Glioblastoma (GBM) is a deadly, malignant brain tumor with a poor long-term prognosis. The current median survival is approximately fifteen to seventeen months with the standard of care therapy which includes surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. An important factor contributing to recurrence of GBM is high resistance of GBM cancer stem cells (CSCs), for which a systemically delivered single drug approach will be unlikely to produce a viable cure. Therefore, multi-drug therapies are needed. Currently, only temozolomide (TMZ), which is a DNA alkylator, affects overall survival in GBM patients. CSCs regenerate rapidly and over-express a methyl transferase which overrides the DNA-alkylating mechanism of TMZ, leading to drug resistance. Idasanutlin (RG7388, R05503781) is a potent, selective MDM2 antagonist that additively kills GBM CSCs when combined with TMZ. By harnessing the strengths of nanotechnology, therapy can be combined with diagnostics in a truly theranostic manner for enhancing personalized medicine against GBM. The goal of this thesis was to develop a multi-drug therapy using multi-functional nanoparticles (NPs) that preferentially target the GBM CSC subpopulation and provide in vivo preclinical imaging capability. Polymer-micellar NPs composed of poly(styrene-b-ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) were developed investigating both single and double emulsion fabrication techniques as well as combinations of TMZ and RG7388. The NPs were covalently bound to a 15 base-pair CD133 aptamer in order to target a specific epitope on the CD133 antigen expressed on the surface of GBM CSC subpopulation. For theranostic functionality, the NPs were also labelled with a positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer, zirconium-89 (89Zr). The NPs maintained a small size of less than 100 nm, a relatively neutral charge and exhibited the ability to produce a cytotoxic effect on CSCs. There was a slight increase in killing with the aptamer-bound NPs compared to those without a targeting agent. This work has provided a potentially therapeutic option for GBM specific for CSC targeting and future in vivo biodistribution studies.”


PLGA-Rhodamine B from PolySciTech used in development of novel macrophage-training immunotherapy cancer treatment

Wednesday, May 13, 2020, 11:50 AM ET


Cancer cells apply a wide range of biochemical methods of avoiding detection and elimination by the human immune system. Immunotherapy is a process by which the existing human immune system is induced to seek out and destroy cancer cells and stands as one of the most promising therapeutic approaches today. Recently, researchers at Harvard University used fluorescent PLGA-Rhodamine (AV011) from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) to develop traceable particle backpacks which adhere to macrophages (immune cells) and induce the immune cells to attack cancer cells. This research holds promise to provide for a new treatment option against cancer. Read more: Shields, C. Wyatt, Michael A. Evans, Lily Li-Wen Wang, Neil Baugh, Siddharth Iyer, Debra Wu, Zongmin Zhao et al. "Cellular backpacks for macrophage immunotherapy." Science Advances 6, no. 18 (2020): eaaz6579. https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/6/18/eaaz6579?utm_source=yxnews&utm_medium=desktop&utm_referrer=https%3A%2F%2Fyandex.by%2Fnews



“Abstract: Adoptive cell transfers have emerged as a disruptive approach to treat disease in a manner that is more specific than using small-molecule drugs; however, unlike traditional drugs, cells are living entities that can alter their function in response to environmental cues. In the present study, we report an engineered particle referred to as a “backpack” that can robustly adhere to macrophage surfaces and regulate cellular phenotypes in vivo. Backpacks evade phagocytosis for several days and release cytokines to continuously guide the polarization of macrophages toward antitumor phenotypes. We demonstrate that these antitumor phenotypes are durable, even in the strongly immunosuppressive environment of a murine breast cancer model. Conserved phenotypes led to reduced metastatic burdens and slowed tumor growths compared with those of mice treated with an equal dose of macrophages with free cytokine. Overall, these studies highlight a new pathway to control and maintain phenotypes of adoptive cellular immunotherapies.”


PLGA from PolySciTech used in development of MRSA targeting nanoparticles for antibacterial applications.

Wednesday, May 13, 2020, 11:48 AM ET




Due to its resistance to most common antibiotics, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an extremely difficult bacterial infection to treat. Recently, researchers at Temple University (Philadelphia, PA, USA) used PLGA (AP063) from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) to create nanoparticles for attacking MRSA inside bone and biofilms. This research holds promise to provide for improved therapies against antibiotic resistant bacteria. Read more: Guo, Pengbo, Bettina A. Buttaro, Hui Yi Xue, Ngoc T. Tran, and Ho Lun Wong. "Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles carrying linezolid improve treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) harbored inside bone cells and biofilms." European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics (2020). https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0939641120301041

“Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the most prevalent pathogen causing osteomyelitis. The tendency of MRSA to evade standard antibiotic treatment by hiding inside bone cells and biofilms is a major cause of frequent osteomyelitis recurrence. In this study, we developed a lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticle loading the antibiotic linezolid (LIN-LPN), and focused on evaluating if this new nanoantibiotic can achieve significant in vitro activities against these intracellular and biofilm-embedded MRSA. The optimal LIN-LPN formulation demonstrated both high linezolid payload (12.0% by weight of nanoparticles) and controlled release characteristics (gradually released the entrapped antibiotic in 120 h). Although it achieved lower activities against bacteria including USA300-0114, CDC-587, RP-62A in planktonic form, it was substantially superior against the intracellular MRSA reservoir inside osteoblast cells. The differences of intracellular activities between LIN-LPN and linezolid were 87.0-fold, 12.3-fold, and 12.6-fold in CFU/ml (p < 0.05 or < 0.01) at 2 µg/ml, 4 µg/ml, and 8 µg/ml linezolid concentrations, respectively. LIN-LPN also suppressed the MRSA biofilm growth to 35–60% of the values achieved with free linezolid (p < 0.05). These enhanced intracellular and anti-biofilm activities of LIN-LPN were likely contributed by the extensive accumulation of LIN-LPN inside the MRSA-infected osteoblasts and biofilms as revealed in the confocal microscope images. The study thus validates the feasibility of exploiting the good nanoparticle-host cell and nanoparticle-biofilm interactions for improving the antibiotic drug activities against the poorly accessible bacteria, and supports LIN-LPN as a new alternative therapy for preventing the recurrence of MRSA-mediated bone infections. Keywords Osteomyelitis Nanoparticles Antibiotic Drug-resistant bacteria”


PLGA-PEG-NHS and mPEG-PLGA from PolySciTech used in development of targeted HIV therapy

Tuesday, May 12, 2020, 3:10 PM ET




HIV is a viral disease which attacks the immune system however targeted therapy can be applied to aid the immune system in fighting the virus which, along with anti-retroviral drugs, may present the potential to cure HIV. Recently, researchers at Creighton University used mPEG-PLGA (AK107) and PLGA-PEG-NHS (AI111) in development of anti-HIV nanoparticles. Read more: Mandal, Subhra, Shawnalyn W. Sunagawa, Pavan Kumar Prathipati, Michael Belshan, Annemarie Shibata, and Christopher J. Destache. "Targeted immuno-antiretroviral HIV therapeutic approach to provide dual protection and boosts cellular immunity: A proof-of-concept study." bioRxiv (2020). https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.20.050849v1.abstract

“Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected active and latent CCR5 expressing long-lived T-cells are the primary barrier to HIV/AIDS eradication. Broadly neutralizing antibodies and latency-reversing agents are the two most promising strategies emerging to achieve ‘functional cure’ against HIV infection. Antiretrovirals (ARVs) have shown to suppress plasma viral loads to non-detectable levels and above strategies have demonstrated a ‘functional cure’ against HIV infection is achievable. Both the above strategies are effective at inducing direct or immune-mediated cell death of latent HIV+ T-cells but have shown respective limitations. In this study, we designed a novel targeted ARVs-loaded nanoformulation that combines the CCR5 monoclonal antibody and antiretroviral drugs (ARV) as a dual protection strategy to promote HIV ‘functional cure’. The modified CCR5 monoclonal antibody (xfR5 mAb) surface-coated dolutegravir (DTG) and tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) loaded nanoformulation (xfR5-D+T NPs) were uniformly sized


PLGA-thiol and Fol-PEG-COOH from PolyScitech used in nanoparticle cancer therapy

Tuesday, May 12, 2020, 3:10 PM ET




Cytochrome-c can be used to induce apoptosis (cell-death) in cancer cells. Recently, researchers at University of Puerto Rico, Universidad Central del Caribe, and Florida International University used PLGA-SH (AI025) and Folate-PEG-COOH (AE003) from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) as part of their development of a cytochrome c delivery system for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. Read more: Barcelo-Bovea, Vanessa, Irivette Dominguez-Martinez, Freisa Joaquin-Ovalle, Luis A. Amador, Elizabeth Castro-Rivera, Kristofer Medina-Alvarez, Anthony McGoron, Kai Griebenow, and Yancy Ferrer-Acosta. "Optimization and Characterization of Protein Nanoparticles for the Targeted and Smart Delivery of Cytochrome c to Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma." (2020). https://www.preprints.org/manuscript/202004.0221

“The delivery of Cytochrome c (Cyt c) to the cytosol stimulates apoptosis in cells were its release from mitochondria and apoptosis induction is inhibited. We developed a drug delivery system consisting of Cyt c nanoparticles decorated with folate-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-thiol (FA-PEG-PLGA-SH) to deliver Cyt c into cancer cells and test their targeting in the Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC) mouse model. Cyt c-PLGA-PEG-FA nanoparticles (NPs) of 253 ± 55 and 354 ± 11 nm were obtained by Cyt c nanoprecipitation, followed by surface decoration with the co-polymer SH-PLGA-PEG-FA, and compared to a nanoparticle-free formulation. Overexpression of FA in LLC cells and internalization of Cyt c-PLGA-PEG-FA nanoparticles (NPs) was confirmed by confocal microscopy. Caspase activation assays show NPs retain 88-96% Cyt c activity. The NP formulations were more efficient in decreasing LLC cell viability than the NP-free formulation, with IC50: 49.2 to 70.1 μg/ml versus 129.5 μg/ml, respectively. Our NP system is thrice as selective towards cancerous than normal cells. In-vivo studies using tagged nanoparticles show accumulation in mouse LLC tumor 5 min post-injection. In conclusion, our NP delivery system for Cyt c shows superiority over the NP-free formulation and reaches a folic acid-overexpressing tumor in an immune-competent animal model.”


PLGA from PolySciTech used in study on drug delivery systems.

Tuesday, May 12, 2020, 3:09 PM ET




Understanding the mechanisitic properties which drive drug delivery systems is critical in designing long-acting injectable formulations. Recently, researchers at University of Connecticut, Qrono Inc, and FDA used PLGA (AP125) from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) as part of their study into drug release mechanisms. Read more: Kohno, Moe, Janki V. Andhariya, Bo Wan, Sam Rothstein, Michael Hezel, Yan Wang, and Diane J. Burgess. "The Effect of PLGA Molecular Weight Differences on Risperidone Release from Microspheres." International Journal of Pharmaceutics (2020): 119339. (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378517320303239)

“Abstract: The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of molecular weight differences of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) on the in vitro release profile of risperidone microspheres. Four different PLGA molecular weights were investigated and all the microsphere formulations were prepared using the same manufacturing process. Physicochemical properties (particle size, drug loading, morphology and molecular weight) as well as in vitro degradation profiles of the prepared microspheres were investigated in addition to in vitro release testing. The in vitro release tests were performed using a previously developed flow through cell (USP apparatus 4) method. The particle size of the four prepared microsphere formulations varied, however there were no significant differences in the drug loading. Interestingly, the in vitro release profiles did not follow the molecular weight of the polymers used. Instead, the drug release appeared to be dependent on the glass transition temperature of the polymers as well as the porosity of the prepared formulations. The catalytic effect of risperidone (an amine drug) on PLGA during manufacturing and release testing, minimized the differences in the molecular weights of the four formulations, explaining the independence of the release profiles on PLGA molecular weight.”


PolySciTech Polymers used in development of novel anti-cancer therapy.

Tuesday, May 12, 2020, 3:08 PM ET




One solution to cancer therapy is to create a condition which starves the cancer so that it can not metabolize and grow. Recently, researchers at Chinese Academy of Sciences and Yangzhou university used polymers from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) to create a nanoparticle therapy which acts to starve cancer. Read more: Wang, Huihui, Lu Cheng, Shang Ma, Liming Ding, Wei Zhang, Zhuobin Xu, Dandan Li, and Lizeng Gao. "Self-assembled multiple enzyme composites for enhanced synergistic cancer starving-catalytic therapy." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces (2020). https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acsami.0c02006

“Abstract: Inspired by the particularity of tumor microenvironments, including acidity and sensibility to reactive oxygen species (ROS), advanced and smart responsive nanomaterials have recently been developed. The present study synthesized tumor-targeted and pH-sensitive supramolecular micelles that self-assembled via host–guest recognition. The micelles consumed intratumoral glucose and lactate via loading with glucose oxidase (GOD) and lactate oxidase (LOD). Intratumoral glucose and lactate were converted into hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and were sequentially reduced to highly toxic hydroxyl radicals (▪OH) via the peroxidase (POD)-like activity of the loaded C-dot nanozymes. Tumor-killing effects were observed via cascade catalytic reactions. After intravenous injection, the nanocomposite exhibited an excellent tumor-targeted ability with good biocompatibility, which demonstrated its effective antitumor effect. The nanocomposite effectively combined starvation and catalytic therapy and exerted a synergistic anticancer effect with minimal side effects and without external addition.”


PLGA from PolySciTech used in development of donepezil-delivery system as treatment for Alzheimer’s disease

Monday, April 13, 2020, 9:59 AM ET



Donepezil is a drug often prescribed for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease however its oral administration in pill form is complicated by its gastric-irritation side effects and lack of patient compliance. For these reasons, a long-acting formulation would be preferable. Recently, researchers at Kangwon National University, Seoul National University (Korea), and UCLA used PLGA (AP059) as a donepezil-entrapment particle to be loaded into HA-Fe based hydrogel to provide for a long-lasting drug delivery system. This research holds promise to provide for improved therapies against Alzheimer’s disease. Read more: Lee, Song Yi, Ju-Hwan Park, Mingyu Yang, Min-Jun Baek, Min-Hwan Kim, Junmin Lee, Ali Khademhosseini, Dae-Duk Kim, and Hyun-Jong Cho. "Ferrous sulfate-directed dual-cross-linked hyaluronic acid hydrogels with long-term delivery of donepezil." International Journal of Pharmaceutics (2020): 119309. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378517320302933

“Abstract: Ferrous sulfate (FeSO4)-directed dual-cross-linked hydrogels were designed for application in single-syringe injections. The use of FeSO4, rather than other iron salts, can modulate the gelation time and make it available for subcutaneous injection with a single syringe. These hydrogels are based on hyaluronic acid–dopamine (HA-dp) that contain donepezil (DPZ)-entrapping poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microsphere (MS). Although DPZ has been administered orally, its sustained release formulation via subcutaneous injection may reduce the dosing frequency for patients with Alzheimer’s disease. The HA-dp conjugate was synthesized via an amide bond reaction for coordination of dp with a metal ion (Fe2+ or Fe3+) and self-polymerization of dp. The HA-dp/DPZ-loaded PLGA MS (PD MS)/FeSO4 gel system was considerably hardened via both the coordination of the metal ion with HA-dp and covalent bonding of dp. In addition, a quick restoration of the collapsed gel structure and sustained DPZ release from the HA-dp/PD MS/FeSO4 structure were achieved. The pharmacokinetic parameters after its subcutaneous injection in a rat indicate the sustained release and absorption of DPZ from the HA-dp/PD MS/FeSO4 system. The proposed system can be prepared by a simple method and can be efficiently and safely used for the long-term delivery of DPZ after the subcutaneous injection.”


mPEG-PLGA from PolySciTech used in development of ketamine-delivery nanoparticles for reduced-addiction pain therapy

Monday, April 13, 2020, 9:58 AM ET



Typically, as a part of either post-surgical healing or chronic disease states (cancer, back damage, etc.) there is a need for long-lasting pain relief. Unfortunately, the opioid drugs which are conventionally used for this application have a highly addictive effect which has contributed greatly to society-wide opioid addiction issues. Recently, researchers at The University of Queensland (Australia) used mPEG-PLGA (AK026) from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) to develop ketamine-delivery nanoparticles for reduced opioid pain treatment options that are less addictive. Read more: Han, Felicity Y., Yun Liu, Vinod Kumar, Weizhi Xu, Guangze Yang, Chun-Xia Zhao, Trent M. Woodruff, Andrew K. Whittaker, and Maree T. Smith. "Sustained-release ketamine-loaded nanoparticles fabricated by sequential nanoprecipitation." International Journal of Pharmaceutics (2020): 119291. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378517320302751

“Abstract: Ketamine in sub-anaesthetic doses is an analgesic adjuvant with a morphine-sparing effect. Co-administration of a strong opioid with an analgesic adjuvant such as ketamine is a potential treatment option, especially for patients with cancer-related pain. A limitation of ketamine is its short in vivo elimination half-life. Hence, our aim was to develop biocompatible and biodegradable ketamine-loaded poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-block-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles for sustained release. Ketamine-encapsulated single polymer PEG-PLGA nanoparticles and double polymer PEG-PLGA/shellac (SH) nanoparticles with a high drug loading of 41.8% (drug weight/the total weight of drug-loaded nanoparticles) were prepared using a new sequential nanoprecipitation method. These drug-loaded nanoparticles exhibited a sustained-release profile for up to 21 days in vitro and for more than 5 days after intravenous injection in mice. Our study demonstrates that high drug loading and a sustained release profile can be achieved with ketamine-loaded PEG-PLGA nanoparticles prepared using this new nanoprecipitation method.”


PEG-PCL from PolySciTech used in polymersome drug delivery development.

Saturday, April 11, 2020, 10:52 AM ET




Providing for drug encapsulation greatly improves stability and delivery of therapeutic molecules. Recently, researchers at Ruprecht-Karls-University (Germany) used PEG-PCL (AK128) from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) to create a polymersome system for delivery of model hydrophobic and peptide-based drugs. This research holds promise for improved drug-delivery systems in the future. Read more: Köthe, Tobias, Stefan Martin, Gabriele Reich, and Gert Fricker. "Dual asymmetric centrifugation as a novel method to prepare highly concentrated dispersions of PEG-b-PCL polymersomes as drug carriers." International Journal of Pharmaceutics (2020): 119087. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378517320300715

“Abstract: Polymersomes are vesicles formed by self-assembly from block copolymers. A widely studied biodegradable diblock copolymer that forms polymersomes is poly(ethylene-glycol)-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEG-b-PCL). Polymersomes from this copolymer have been prepared by various methods. Major drawbacks are either the use of organic solvents, the need for post-preparation steps or low polymer concentration in resulting dispersions. Here, we studied the use of dual asymmetric centrifugation (DAC) as alternative and innovative preparation method by which these disadvantages can be overcome. We investigated the influence of process parameters on the size of resulting particles and their morphology. Additionally, the ability of this method to encapsulate both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs into polymersomes was assessed to evaluate its usefulness in the manufacture of nano-therapeutics. We found, that depending on process parameters, formation of nanosized vesicles with considerable drug encapsulation is achievable. Interestingly, with DAC polymersomes could also be prepared from a high molecular weight copolymer that was not able to generate vesicles by conventional methods. In addition, no organic solvents are used, no postprocessing is necessary and preparation is done quickly in a single vessel, minimizing product loss. DAC leads to highly concentrated, drug-loaded polymersome dispersions and therefore represents a major step towards their applicability in nanomedicine.”


PEG-PLA from PolySciTech used in development of nanoparticle-based therapy of Lou Gehrig's disease

Wednesday, April 8, 2020, 9:21 AM ET


Lou Gehrig’s disease, or ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) is a fatal and progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects nerve cells in the brain and the spinal cord. Recently, researchers at Barrow Neurological Institute and University of Texas used PEG-PLA (AK054) and PLGA (AP037) from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) to create adapalene loaded nanoparticles for ALS treatment. This research holds promise for treating this fatal disease. Read more: Medina, David X., Eugene P. Chung, Collin D. Teague, Robert Bowser, and Rachael W. Sirianni. "Intravenously Administered, Retinoid Activating Nanoparticles Increase Lifespan and Reduce Neurodegeneration in the SOD1G93A Mouse Model of ALS." Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology 8 (2020): 224. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fbioe.2020.00224/full

“Dysregulation of the retinoic acid (RA) signaling pathway is observed in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and other neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we investigated the therapeutic potential of retinoid activation via the RA receptor β (RARβ) in the SOD1G93A mouse model of ALS. Our approach utilized the RARβ agonist adapalene, which we previously found to be neuroprotective in vitro. Adapalene, like most retinoids, is poorly water soluble, which has thus far prevented effective drug delivery in vivo. To address this challenge, we encapsulated adapalene within nanoparticles (Adap-NPs) composed of poly(lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLA-PEG). Our data demonstrate that intravenous administration of Adap-NPs robustly activates retinoid signaling in the CNS. Chronic administration of Adap-NPs resulted in improved motor performance, prolonged lifespan, and neuroprotection in SOD1G93A mice. This study highlights retinoid signaling as a valuable therapeutic approach and presents a novel nanoparticle platform for the treatment of ALS.”


PLGA-PEG-azide and PLGA fluorescent materials from PolySciTech used in development of nanoparticles for lymphoma treatment

Wednesday, April 8, 2020, 9:20 AM ET




Non-Hodgkin’s lyphoma is a cancer that originates in the lymphatic system and then spreads throughout the body quickly making it difficult to treat. Recently researchers at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill used PLGA-PEG-N3 (AI091), mPEG-PLGA (AK101), PLGA-rhodamine (AV011), and PLA-CY5 (AV032) from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) to create targeted and traceable nanoparticles for development of a therapy against non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. This research holds promise to improve therapies against this type of cancer. Read more: Au, Kin Man, Andrew Z. Wang, and Steven I. Park. "Pretargeted delivery of PI3K/mTOR small-molecule inhibitor–loaded nanoparticles for treatment of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma." Science Advances 6, no. 14 (2020): eaaz9798. https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/6/14/eaaz9798.abstract

“Abstract: Overactivation of the PI3K/mTOR signaling has been identified in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. BEZ235 is an effective dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor, but it was withdrawn from early-phase clinical trials owing to poor solubility and on-target/off-tumor toxicity. Here, we developed a nanoparticle (NP)–based pretargeted system for the therapeutic delivery of BEZ235 to CD20- and HLA-DR–expressing lymphoma cells for targeted therapy. The pretargeted system is composed of dibenzocyclooctyne-functionalized anti-CD20 and anti-Lym1 antibodies as the tumor-targeting components and azide-functionalized BEZ235-encapsulated NPs as the effector drug carrier. Using lymphoma cell lines with different CD20 and HLA-DR antigen densities as examples, we demonstrate that the dual antibody pretargeted strategy effectively raises the number of NPs retained on the target tumor cells and improves the in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of BEZ235 through the inhibition of the PI3K/mTOR pathway. Our data demonstrate that the NP-based pretargeted system improves the therapeutic window of small-molecule kinase inhibitor.”


Akina Inc. Responds to Community Need for Hand Sanitizer

Friday, March 27, 2020, 10:00 AM ET


In response to the COVID-19 outbreak Akina, Inc. has begun manufacture of 70% Alcohol hand sanitizer to be distributed through local stores which have had little to no supply of hand sanitizer since the pandemic began. Two pilot manufacturing lines have been created and Akina plans to provide between 500 - 1000 bottles for local stores until conditions improve and major suppliers can provide sanitizer to the area again.https://akinainc.com/polyscitech/products/HandySan/index.php

Notice: Due to Indiana Stay At Home orders as a result of COVID-19, from March 25 - April 7, Akina, Inc. will be operating at minimal capacity with a shifted focus on generation of hand sanitizer for local companies.


PLGA-PEG-PLGA from PolySciTech used in development of spinal-column repair gel

Wednesday, March 18, 2020, 11:56 AM ET



Providing the correct scaffolding and conditions can enable the regrowth of damaged tissue and organs. This can be used to heal injuries after trauma or disease including paralysis caused by spinal column damage. Recently, researchers at Zhejiang University and Hangzhou Dajiangdong Hospital (China) used PLGA-PEG-PLGA Thermogel (AK012) from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) to create a system for repair of spinal cord injuries. This research holds promise to improve available treatments for paralysis in the future. Read more: Gong, Zhe, Chenggui Wang, Licheng Ni, Liwei Ying, Jiawei Shu, Jingkai Wang, Chao Yu et al. "An injectable recombinant human milk fat globule–epidermal growth factor 8–loaded copolymer system for spinal cord injury by reducing inflammation through NF-κB pathway and neuronal cell death." Cytotherapy (2020). https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1465324920300360

“Abstract: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a common disease and a major cause of paralysis, carrying much burden around the world. Despite the progress made with growth factors therapy, the response rate of acute SCI treatment still remains unsatisfactory, due largely to complex and severe inflammatory reactions. Herein, we prepare a MFG-E8–loaded copolymer system–based anti-inflammation therapy for SCI treatment. It is shown that the MFG-E8–loaded copolymer system can decrease pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and neuron death. In a rat model of crush-caused SCI, the copolymer system shows significant therapeutic efficacy by ameliorating inflammation, decreasing fibrotic scar, promoting myelin regeneration and suppressing overall SCI severity. Key Words inflammationmilk fat globule–epidermal growth factor 8poly- (DL-lactic acid co-glycolic acid)–polyethylene glycol–poly- (DL-lactic acid co-glycolic acid) copolymerspinal cord injury”

--> Save-the-date: Akina, Inc's third annual Biotech-Pharma-Cancer-Research (BPCR) conference is August 26 at Kurz Purdue Technology Center (KPTC) (http://bpcrconference.com/).


Akina Continued Operations During Covid19

Tuesday, March 17, 2020, 2:52 PM ET


As the recent COVID19 outbreak has lead to many closures and limited operations, this note is being put out regarding Akina's operations during this time.


As Akina, Inc. is a small company (fewer than 10 on-site employees) and we have little to no face-to-face customer interactions, we intend to remain open through this time and remain available for polymer products and research services. Internally, we have instituted additional sanitation procedures in the office and other processes to reduce any potential spread as precautionary measures. If you have questions regarding this, feel free to reach John Garner, General Manager (765-464-0501, jg@akinainc.com).





PLGA from PolySciTech used in development of novel two-photon fluorescent-tracer nanoparticles

Tuesday, March 3, 2020, 4:38 PM ET



Imaging specific features within living bodies is both critical for diagnostics as well as treatment. This process however is difficult and limited as it applies to obtaining specific details regarding internal features and organs. Recently, researchers at National Central University (Taiwan) used PLGA from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) as part of their development of a novel two-photon fluorescent imaging tracer. This research holds promise for improved diagnostic and imaging techniques. Read more: Cheng, Yu-Min, Chi-Hsiang Lien, Jing-Han Ke, and Fan-Ching Chien. "An excitation wavelength switching to enhance dual-color wide-field temporal-focusing multiphoton excitation fluorescence imaging." Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics (2020). https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1361-6463/ab7acc/meta

“Abstract: Dual-color two-photon excitation (TPE)-fluorescence imaging is used in conventional TFMPEM to observe specimens with different fluorophore labels. However, concerns have been raised about the excitation efficiency and selectivity of the fluorophores under fixed-wavelength excitation. This study presents a wavelength-switching approach using a scanning mirror, beam expander, and diffraction grating in the TFMPEM to switch the excitation wavelengths and match the optimal absorption of the fluorophores to acquire dynamic dual-color TPE-fluorescence images. The presented TFMPEM system was demonstrated to have an axial excitation confinement of 2.3–5.0 μm for excitation wavelengths of 730–1000 nm, and was used to visualize three-dimensional images of the vasculature of a mouse brain. The TPE efficiencies of different fluorophores were evaluated through TFMPEM imaging with excitation wavelength scanning to obtain their TPE spectra. Consequently, time-lapsed dual-color TFMPEM imaging was performed on rhodamine 6G (R6G)–poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles and enhanced-yellow-fluorescent protein (EYFP)-tagged clathrin using excitation wavelengths at the maximum TPEs of R6G and EYFP, respectively. Our results revealed the PLGA-nanoparticle uptake of live cells via long-lived clathrin-coated plaques in clathrin-mediated endocytosis.”

--> Save-the-date: Akina, Inc's third annual Biotech-Pharma-Cancer-Research (BPCR) conference is August 26 at Kurz Purdue Technology Center (KPTC) (http://bpcrconference.com/).


mPEG-PLGA from PolySciTech used in development of cancer photodynamic therapy system

Tuesday, March 3, 2020, 4:37 PM ET




Photodynamic therapy is the process by which a specific photosensitizer is delivered to the tumor site and then the tissue is illuminated to activate the chemical for killing cancer cells. Recently, researchers at Universitat Ramon Llull (Spain) used mPEG-PLGA (PolyVivo AK102) from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) as part of developing nanoparticles for delivering the photosensitizer ZnTriMPyP to cancer cells. This research holds promise to provide for improved cancer therapies in the future. Read more: de las Heras, Elena, Ester Boix‐Garriga, Francesca Bryden, Montserrat Agut, Margarita Mora, M. Lluïsa Sagristá, Ross W. Boyle, Norbert Lange, and Santi Nonell. "c (RGDfK)‐and ZnTriMPyP‐Bound Polymeric Nanocarriers for Tumor‐Targeted Photodynamic Therapy." Photochemistry and Photobiology. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/php.13238

“Abstract: Active targeting strategies are currently being extensively investigated in order to enhance the selectivity of photodynamic therapy. The aim of the present research is to evaluate if the external decoration of nanopolymeric carriers with targeting peptides could add more value to a photosensitizer formulation and increase antitumor therapeutic efficacy and selectivity. To this end, we assessed PLGA‐PLA‐PEG nanoparticles (NPs) covalently attached to a hydrophilic photosensitizer 5‐[4‐azidophenyl]‐10,15,20‐tri‐(N‐methyl‐4‐pyridinium)porphyrinato zinc (II) trichloride (ZnTriMPyP) and also to c(RGDfK) peptides, in order to target αvβ3 integrin‐expressing cells. In vitro phototoxicity investigations showed that the ZnTriMPyP‐PLGA‐PLA‐PEG‐c(RGDfK) nanosystem is effective at submicromolar concentrations, is devoid of dark toxicity, successfully targets αvβ3 integrin expressing cells, and is 10‐fold more potent than related nanosystems where the PS is occluded instead of covalently bound.”

--> Save-the-date: Akina, Inc's third annual Biotech-Pharma-Cancer-Research (BPCR) conference is August 26 at Kurz Purdue Technology Center (KPTC) (http://bpcrconference.com/).


PLGA from PolySciTech used in development of long-acting ocular implant

Tuesday, February 25, 2020, 8:49 AM ET



Intravitreal injections can be sight-saving as they are used to prevent the progression of macular degeneration and other ocular diseases. Although effective, this therapy requires repeated intra-ocular injections which is inconvenient for both patient and clinician. Recently, researchers at University of Cincinnati used PLGA (AP119) from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) to create a nanoporous implant for controlled drug delivery to the eye. This research holds promise for development of a sight-saving therapy with fewer injections. Read more: He, Xingyu, Zheng Yuan, Winston W. Kao, Daniel M. Miller, S. Kevin Li, and Yoonjee C. Park. "Size-Exclusive Nanoporous Biodegradable PLGA Capsule for Drug Delivery Implant and The In Vivo Stability In The Posterior Segment." ACS Applied Bio Materials (2020). https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acsabm.0c00027

“Abstract: The current standard of care for posterior segment eye diseases such as neovascular age-related macular degeneration, diabetic macular edema is frequent intravitreal injections or sustained-release drug implants. Intravitreal injections have a low incidence of serious complications such as retinal detachment, endophthalmitis, iatrogenic traumatic cataract, or iridocyclitis and injection-site reactions. However, there is a significant burden to the patient, the patient’s family, and the health system because current intravitreal therapies require between every 4 and 12 week administration over many years. Drug implants have side effects due to burst release of the drugs and their release cannot be easily controlled after implantation. We have developed a size-exclusive nanoporous biodegradable PLGA capsule for dosage-controllable drug delivery implants. We have optimized the nanoporous structure by tuning the ratio between porogen and high molecular weight PLGA and tested the stability against passive leakage of liposomal drug (1~2 μm) and the safety in vivo rabbit eyes for 6 months. Our results suggest that PLGA implants made of the nanoporous PLGA sheet can selectively release drug molecules, keeping the liposomal drug inside. In addition, the implant was biocompatible causing no inflammation and foreign body response when implanted for 6 months. Overall, the implant shows a great potential for on-demand dose-controllable drug release applications.”

--> Save-the-date: Akina, Inc's third annual Biotech-Pharma-Cancer-Research (BPCR) conference is August 26 at Kurz Purdue Technology Center (KPTC) (http://bpcrconference.com/).


PLGA from PolySciTech used in development of nanoparticle system for lung-cancer

Thursday, February 20, 2020, 2:39 PM ET



Many chemotherapeutic agents, such as cisplatin, are highly toxic which limits the dose due to side effects. A delivery system which can improve the amount of drug which actually releases in the tumor site would improve this. Recently, researchers at University of Texas used PLGA (AP154) from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) was used to create cisplatin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles for comparison to novel PEU nanoparticles. This research holds promise to provide for improved therapies against lung cancer. Read more: Iyer, Roshni, Tam Nguyen, Dona Padanilam, Cancan Xu, Debabrata Saha, Kytai T. Nguyen, and Yi Hong. "Glutathione-responsive biodegradable polyurethane nanoparticles for lung cancer treatment." Journal of Controlled Release (2020). https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168365920301115

“Highlights: Glutathione is abundantly available in lung cancer microenvironment. Biodegradable polyurethane nanoparticles were fabricated via a single emulsion with a mixed organic solvent. GSH-sensitive biodegradable polyurethane nanoparticles (GPUs) released encapsulated cisplatin in response to elevated glutathione levels. Cisplatin loaded GPUs significantly reduced tumor growth in a subcutaneously xenograft A549 lung tumor mouse model compared to the free cisplatin. Abstract: Lung cancer is one of the major causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Stimuli-responsive polymers and nanoparticles, which respond to exogenous or endogenous stimuli in the tumor microenvironment, have been widely investigated for spatiotemporal chemotherapeutic drug release applications for cancer chemotherapy. We developed glutathione (GSH)-responsive polyurethane nanoparticles (GPUs) using a GSH-cleavable disulfide bond containing polyurethane that responds to elevated levels of GSH within lung cancer cells. The polyurethane nanoparticles were fabricated using a single emulsion and mixed organic solvent method. Cisplatin-loaded GSH-sensitive nanoparticles (CGPU) displayed a GSH-dose dependent release of cisplatin. In addition, a significant reduction in in vitro survival fraction of A549 lung cancer cells was observed compared to free cisplatin of equivalent concentration (survival fraction of ~0.5 and ~0.7, respectively). The in vivo biodistribution studies showed localization of fluorescently labeled GPUs (~7% of total injected dose) in the lung tumor regions after mouse-tail IV injections in xenograft A549 lung tumor models. The animals exposed to CGPUs also exhibited the inhibition of lung tumor growth compared to animals administered with saline (tumor growth rate of 1.5 vs. 13 in saline) and free cisplatin (tumor growth rate of 5.9) in mouse xenograft A549 lung tumor models within 14 days. These nanoparticles have potential to be used for on-demand drug release for an enhanced chemotherapy to effectively treat lung cancer.”

--> Save-the-date: Akina, Inc's third annual Biotech-Pharma-Cancer-Research (BPCR) conference is August 26 at Kurz Purdue Technology Center (KPTC) (http://bpcrconference.com/).


PLGA from PolySciTech used in evaluation of 3D Cell culturing of cancer cells as assay tool.

Thursday, February 13, 2020, 4:35 PM ET




Testing cancer therapies requires making sure that the test used is relevant to the physiology of the patient. Ideally, cancer cells will be grown in a 3D format, same as they are in the human body. Recently, researchers at San Jose State University used PLGA (AP042) from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) to create doxorubicin nanoparticles for testing the accuracy of 3D Cell cultures. This research holds promise for improved research in cancer therapy in the future. Read more: Nimbalkar, Priya, Peter Tabada, Anuja Bokare, Jeffrey Chung, Marzieh Mousavi, Melinda Simon, and Folarin Erogbogbo. "Improving the physiological relevance of drug testing for drug-loaded nanoparticles using 3D tumor cell cultures." MRS Communications 9, no. 3 (2019): 1053-1059. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/mrs-communications/article/improving-the-physiological-relevance-of-drug-testing-for-drugloaded-nanoparticles-using-3d-tumor-cell-cultures/FEAC0E69F94D331886A06FFD2E854D0A

Nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery has the potential to overcome several limitations of cancer chemotherapy. Lipid polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPHNPs) have been demonstrated to exhibit superior cellular delivery efficacy. Hence, doxorubicin (a chemotherapeutic drug)-loaded LPHNPs have been synthesized by three-dimensional (3D)-printed herringbone-patterned multi-inlet vortex mixer. This method offers rapid and efficient mixing of reactants yielding controllable and reproducible synthesis of LPHNPs. The cytotoxicity of LPHNPs is tested using two-dimensional (2D) and 3D microenvironments. Results obtained from 3D cell cultures showed major differences in cytotoxicity in comparison with 2D cultures. These results have broad implications in predicting in vitro LPHNP toxicology.

--> Save-the-date: Akina, Inc's third annual Biotech-Pharma-Cancer-Research (BPCR) conference is August 26 at Kurz Purdue Technology Center (KPTC) (http://bpcrconference.com/).


mPEG-PLA from PolySciTech used in development of simvastatin delivery system to treat neuroinflammation.

Thursday, February 13, 2020, 4:34 PM ET


Inflammation is a natural response to injury or infection which can also lead to significant health problems. Recently, researchers at Kent State University used mPEG-PLA (AK021) from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) to create nanoparticles for intraceullular delivery of anti-inflammatory agents. This research holds promise to treate a variety of inflammatory-related disease states. Read more: Manickavasagam, Dharani, and Moses O. Oyewumi. "Internalization of particulate delivery systems by activated microglia influenced the therapeutic efficacy of simvastatin repurposing for neuroinflammation." International Journal of Pharmaceutics 570 (2019): 118690. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378517319307355

“Abstract: We recently evaluated the suitability of polymersome delivery systems in simvastatin repurposing for treating neuroinflammation. The goal of the current study is to elucidate the therapeutic impact of particulate internalization by activated microglia on the resultant anti-inflammatory properties. Thus, we investigated the endocytic mechanism(s) involved in uptake and transport of simvastatin-loaded polymersomes by BV2 microglia cells coupled with delineation of the intracellular pathway(s) involved in regulating anti-inflammatory effects. Our data indicated that internalization of polymersome delivery systems by activated microglial BV2 cells was important in the suppression of nitric oxide (NO), TNF-α and IL-6 production. Further, we observed that the lipid raft/caveolae pathway had the most influential effect on polymersome internalization by microglia cells while clathrin-mediated endocytosis did not play a major role. Enhancement of anti-inflammatory effects of simvastatin could be attributed to inhibition of ERK1/2, JNK and AKT signaling pathways and internalization of polymersome delivery systems in activated microglia. Taken together, our data provided insights into how the intracellular trafficking of delivery systems by microglial could be a useful tool in modulating the desired anti-inflammatory effects of drugs.”

--> Save-the-date: Akina, Inc's third annual Biotech-Pharma-Cancer-Research (BPCR) conference is August 26 at Kurz Purdue Technology Center (KPTC) (http://bpcrconference.com/).


PLGA-rhodamine from PolySciTech used in development of antibacterial nanoparticles

Thursday, February 13, 2020, 4:34 PM ET


Bacteria have many survival strategies one of which is to hide inside of cells. Recently, researchers at Purdue University and Assiut University used PLGA-Rhodamine (AV011) and PLGA (AP020) from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) to create fluorescent nanoparticles with antimicrobial peptides. These particles were found to be effective against intracellular bacteria. This research holds promise to provide for improved therapies against bacterial infections. Read more. G Elnaggar, Marwa, Hesham M Tawfeek, Aly A. Abdel-Rahman, E. Aboutaleb Ahmed, and Yoon Yeo. "Encapsulation Of Antennapedia (Penetratin) Peptide in a Polymeric Platform For Effective Treatment of Intracellular Bacteria." Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Assiut 42, no. 1 (2019): 63-70. http://bpsa.journals.ekb.eg/article_62266.html

“Abstract: Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) and cell-penetrating peptides (CPP) are two classes of peptides that share some structural and physicochemical similarities. Antennapedia or penetratin (ANT) is one of the most known CPPs, that was proven to have antimicrobial activity against certain strains of planktonic bacteria. ANT can enter the cells but has no activity against intracellular bacteria. This is attributable to the inability of the peptide to reach bacteria reside within cellular components as well as low delivery efficiency, due to loss of activity by proteolysis and poor specificity. The aim of this work is to develop a formulation that can effectively reach and attack intracellular bacteria. To achieve this goal, ANT was encapsulated in PLGA platform as nanoparticles with the size range of 500-1000 nm, which allows for selective uptake by macrophages where bacteria mostly reside. ANT was loaded with high loading efficiency (12.7%) inspite of high water solubility. ANT-nanoparticles (ANT-NP) had no cytotoxicity on J774a.1 macrophages and were readily taken up by macrophages as confirmed by fluorescence microscopy. Antibacterial activity of ANT-NP remains to be tested against different intracellular bacteria.”

--> Save-the-date: Akina, Inc's third annual Biotech-Pharma-Cancer-Research (BPCR) conference is August 26 at Kurz Purdue Technology Center (KPTC) (http://bpcrconference.com/).


These posts are syndicated from John Garner's blog at http://jgakinainc.blogspot.com/ where you can post a question or comment. (Load took 0.36023092269897 seconds)

 

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