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John Garner's Technical Blog
John GarnerJohn Garner, Manager

What's New and on the Manager's Mind

A blog dedicated to answering technical questions in an open format relating to products from PolySciTech, a division of Akina, Inc.


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PEG-PLGA from PolySciTech used in development of daunorubicin nanoparticles for skin-cancer treatment

Wednesday, August 12, 2020, 1:56 PM ET


Treatment of cancer is complicated by lack of specificity for chemotherapeutic compounds against cancer leading to most of the promising drugs having side-effects that limit their usage. Combining chemotherapy with phototherapy, however, could provide for an improved combination treatment in which the two strategies are applied together. Recently, researchers at Warsaw University of Technology and Wrocław University of Science and Technology (Poland) used mPEG-PLGA (AK002) from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) to create nanoparticles loaded with photosensitizer, IR-768, and chemotherapy agent, daunorubicin. This research holds promise to provide for improved therapies against cancer. Read more: Tokarska, Katarzyna, Łukasz Lamch, Beata Piechota, Kamil Żukowski, Michał Chudy, Kazimiera A. Wilk, and Zbigniew Brzózka. "Co-delivery of IR-768 and daunorubicin using mPEG-b-PLGA micelles for synergistic enhancement of combination therapy of melanoma." Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology (2020): 111981. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1011134420304310

“Malignant melanoma is an emerging problem worldwide due to the high degree of lethalness. Its aggressiveness and the ability to metastasize along with the heterogeneity at the molecular and cellular levels, limit the overall therapeutic efficacy. Despite significant advances in melanoma treatment over the last decade, there is still a need for improved therapeutic modalities. Thus, we demonstrate here a combinatorial approach that targets multiple independent therapeutic pathways, in which polymeric micelles (PMs) were used as efficacious colloidal nanocarriers loaded with both daunorubicin (DRB) as a cytotoxic drug and IR-768 as a photosensitizer. This afforded the dual drug loaded delivery system IR-768 + DRB in PMs. The fabricated mPEG-b-PLGA micelles (hydrodynamic diameters ≈ 25 nm) had a relatively narrow size distribution (PdI > ca. 0.3) with uniform spherical shapes. CLSM study showed that mPEG-b-PLGA micelles were uptaken by mitochondria, which further contributed to excellent singlet oxygen generation capacity for PDT in A375 melanoma cells. Furthermore, the PMs were efficiently internalized by tested cells through endocytosis, resulting in much higher cellular uptake comparing to the free drug. As a result of these properties, IR-768 + DRB in PMs exhibited very potent and synergistically enhanced anticancer activity against A375 cells. Additionally, this combination approach allowed to reduce drug doses and provided low side effects towards normal HaCaT. This study indicates excellent properties of mPEG-b-PLGA micelles resulting in great therapeutic potential possessed by the developed nanoscale drug delivery system for combined chemo-photodynamic therapy of melanoma. Keywords: Co-encapsulation Polymeric micelles Combination therapy Photodynamic therapy Melanoma Nanoscale drug delivery systems”


PLGA-PEG-Mal from PolySciTech used in development of oral insulin delivery system

Wednesday, August 12, 2020, 1:33 PM ET


Diabetes is a common and debilitating disease caused by inappropriate concentration of glucose in the blood stream. It is often treated using insulin however insulin must typically be injected which is painful and unpleasant leading to poor patient compliance. Recently, researchers at University of Porto (Portugal) and Oslo University (Norway) used PLGA-PEG-Mal (AI110) from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) to create labeled nanoparticles. These particles were loaded with insulin and tested in animal model for absorption. This research holds promise for improved therapies against diabetes in the future. Read more: Azevedo, Cláudia, Jeannette Nilsen, Algirdas Grevys, Rute Nunes, Jan Terje Andersen, and Bruno Sarmento. "Engineered albumin-functionalized nanoparticles for improved FcRn binding enhance oral delivery of insulin." Journal of Controlled Release (2020). https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168365920304363

“Abstract: Oral delivery of biopharmaceuticals, as insulin, is hampered by rapid degradation and inefficient absorption in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). To solve this, a new class of biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG) mucodiffusive nanoparticles (NPs) was designed. Specifically, these were decorated with site-specific conjugated human albumin, engineered for improved pH dependent binding to the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), which naturally mediates transport of albumin across the intestinal epithelium. The designed NPs of monodisperse 150 nm in size were 10% loaded with insulin and their surface was successfully functionalized with human albumin. Importantly, the engineered albumin-functionalized NPs bound human FcRn favorably in a pH dependent manner and showed enhanced transport across polarized cell layers. When orally administered to human FcRn expressing mice induced with diabetes, a reduction of glycemia was measured as a function of receptor targeting, with up to around 40% reduction after 1 h post-delivery. Thus, biodegradable PLGA-PEG NPs decorated with human albumin for improved FcRn-dependent transport offer a novel attractive strategy for delivery of encapsulated biopharmaceuticals across intestinal barriers. Keywords: Engineered albumin variants FcRn binding Glycemic decrease Intestinal permeability PLGA-PEG nanoparticles Type 1 diabetes mellitus”


Nuplon White-Paper technical documents out for dye/colorizing and electrical applications

Friday, July 31, 2020, 1:33 PM ET



Nuplon, a thermoset biodegradable polymer recently developed by Akina, Inc., is still under testing for a wide array of household and commodity uses. Two recent technical white-papers have come out reporting on the application of Nuplon towards dyed/colorized products (http://akinainc.com/pdf/Nuplon%20Technical%20Application%20Dye.pdf) as well as for use in forming electrical circuitry (http://akinainc.com/pdf/Nuplon%20Technical%20Application%20electrical.pdf).


PLGA-PEG-Folate and PLGA from PolySciTech used in Drug-delivery research

Friday, July 31, 2020, 12:02 PM ET




Medicinal molecules are only useful if they can reach the site of action. Often, this is simple for drugs such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) which are generic in nature, have relatively little side effects, and can be dosed orally. However for other drugs which do not dissolve well or are required to be delivered to a very specific location, advanced formulation strategies are necessary. Recently, researchers at University of Texas at El Paso used PLGA (AP081) and PLGA-PEG-Folate (AI168) from Polyscitech (www.polyscitech.com) to produce lutein-loaded nanoparticles for testing drug delivery to brain as a treatment for low-oxygen content disease states. This research holds promise to improve therapies against cancer and other disease states which require careful location of drugs. Read more: Bolla, Pradeep Kumar. "Formulation Strategies To Enhance Solubility And Permeability Of Small Molecules For Drug Delivery Applications." PhD diss., The University of Texas at El Paso, 2020. http://search.proquest.com/openview/444a9cea66942e5b372da6e7c3fd2394/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=18750&diss=y

“Perinatal asphyxia caused due to hypoxia complicates and causes hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Therapeutic hypothermia widely used to treat HIE and is successful in 50%-60% patient population. It was reported that lutein supplementation showed neuroprotective properties in rat model of neonatal HIE. Lutein has poor bioavailability owing to poor aqueous solubility. In the second study, lutein was encapsulated into polymeric nanoparticles (PLGA and PLGA-PEG-FOLATE) and evaluated enhanced uptake in human neuroblastoma cells. Lutein loaded polymeric nanoparticles were prepared using O/W emulsion solvent-evaporation technique. Particle diameter and zeta potential (ZP) were measured using dynamic light scattering (DLS). Other characterizations included DSC, FTIR, SEM, and in vitro release studies. In vitro uptake studies were conducted in neuroblastoma cells using flow cytometry, confocal microscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Lutein was successfully encapsulated into PLGA and PLGA-PEG-FOLATE nanoparticles with uniform size distribution of around 200 nm and high ZP. Entrapment efficiency of lutein was ~61% and ~73% for lutein PLGA and PLGAPEG-FOLATE nanoparticles, respectively. DSC and FTIR confirmed encapsulation of lutein into nanoparticles. Cumulative release of lutein was higher in PLGA nanoparticles with 100% release within 24 hours. In PLGA-PEG-FOLATE nanoparticles, cumulative release was ~80% at ix 48 hours. Cellular uptake studies in neuroblastoma cells confirmed a significant increase in lutein uptake with PLGA-PEG-FOLATE nanoparticles compared to PLGA nanoparticles and lutein alone. Findings from this study suggest that lutein loaded PLGA-PEG-FOLATE nanoparticles can be potentially used for treatment of HIE.”


New Product: Nuplon™: Environmentally-Friendly Biodegradable Plastic for Commodity Applications

Wednesday, July 22, 2020, 1:49 PM ET



The prevalence of non-degradable plastics has created an environmental hazard in oceans and forests across the planet. In addition to the medical research products, Akina, Inc. has developed a novel, commercially-viable, plastic which breaks down to non-toxic compounds over the course of 2-3 months with water exposure. This patent-pending technology allows for the creation of hard, heat-resistant crosslinked plastics which can be machined into a variety of shapes for a wide array of applications. Learn more at http://www.nuplon.com/



New Category: AD*** Modified Lipids

Wednesday, July 22, 2020, 1:48 PM ET



One of the oldest and most well-known classes of drug solublization products is modifying bio-inspired phospholipids with hydrophilic compounds (such as PEG) to create micelle-forming compounds with long circulation time. Recently, Akina, Inc. has added a new class of research products to the PolySciTech line to provide for modified lipid materials. You can see this new class here https://akinainc.com/polyscitech/products/polyvivo/index.php#LipidDerivatives


New Category: AX*** Polyoxazoline Derivatives

Wednesday, July 22, 2020, 1:47 PM ET



Although poly(ethylene glycol) is popular for use as a hydrophilic, water soluble polymer in biomedical applications it is not the only polymer which can fulfill this role. A growing body of evidence is showing that Polyoxazoline can provide for hydrophilic stabilization of block copolymers without some of the drawbacks characteristic of PEG. Recently, Akina, Inc. has added a new class of research products to the PolySciTech line to provide for polyoxazoline derivative materials. You can see this new class here https://akinainc.com/polyscitech/products/polyvivo/index.php#PolyoxazolineDerivatives


PLGA from PolySciTech used in research on bone tissue repair materials.

Wednesday, July 22, 2020, 1:46 PM ET




Bone tissue can not heal if the damage to an area of the bone is larger than a certain size (referenced as a critical defect size). In this case the bone may heal around the damage but can not bridge the gap to fill it in. In this case, often, a bone-scaffold material is surgically implanted to provide for improved healing. Recently, researchers at Southern Medical University (China) and The Pennsylvania State University developed novel biomaterials to test for their ability to provide for guided regeneration of bone. PLGA (AP154) from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) was used as a comparison item to provide control data for biocompatibility and other parameters. This research holds promise to improve bone repair due to injury or disease. Read more: Guo, Jinshan, Xinggui Tian, Denghui Xie, Kevin Rahn, Ethan Gerhard, Michelle Laurel Kuzma, Dongfang Zhou et al. "Citrate‐Based Tannin‐Bridged Bone Composites for Lumbar Fusion." Advanced Functional Materials (2020): 2002438. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/adfm.202002438

“Conventional bone composites consistently fail to mimic the chemical composition and integrated organic/inorganic structure of natural bone, lacking sufficient mechanics as well as inherent osteoconductivity and osteoinductivity. Through a facile surface coating process, the strong adhesive, tannic acid (TA), is adhered to the surface of the natural bone component, hydroxyapatite (HA), with and without the immobilization of in situ formed silver nanoparticles. Residual functional groups available on the immobilized TA substituents are subsequently covalently linked to the citrate‐based biodegradable polymer, poly(octamethylene citrate) (POC), effectively bridging the organic and inorganic phases. Due to the synergistic effects of the tannin and citrate components, the obtained citrate‐based tannin‐bridged bone composites (CTBCs) exhibit vastly improved compression strengths up to 323.0 ± 21.3 MPa compared to 229.9 ± 15.6 MPa for POC‐HA, and possess tunable degradation profiles, enhanced biomineralization performance, favorable biocompatibility, increased cell adhesion and proliferation, as well as considerable antimicrobial activity. In vivo study of porous CTBCs using a lumbar fusion model further confirms CTBCs' osteoconductivity and osteoinductivity, promoting bone regeneration. CTBCs possess great potential for bone regeneration applications while the immobilized TA additionally preserves surface bioconjugation sites to further tailor the bioactivity of CTBCs.”


Free PolySciTech Mask with Order

Tuesday, July 21, 2020, 4:54 PM ET



Every order from www.polyscitech.com comes with a free, cloth, non-medical face-mask while supplies last.


PLGA-PEG-Mal from PolySciTech used in development of angiogenesis controlling nanoparticles

Monday, July 20, 2020, 3:42 PM ET



Angiogenesis, the process by which blood vessels form and are grown, is a complicated biochemical process controlled by multiple signaling pathways. By providing a molecule which interacts with these pathways the growth of blood vessels can be controlled. This is an important pathway in terms of cancer treatment as cancers are often associated with inappropriate growth of blood vessels. Recently, researchers from Utrecht University, Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences and University Medical Center Utrecht, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands) utilized PLGA-PEG-Mal (AI020) from PolySciTech to develop RGD-targeted nanoparticles for endothelial targeting. This research holds promise to provide for better control of angiogenesis as a treatment option for cancer and other disease states. Read more: Martínez-Jothar, Lucía, Arjan D. Barendrecht, Anko M. de Graaff, Sabrina Oliveira, Cornelus F. van Nostrum, Raymond M. Schiffelers, Wim E. Hennink, and Marcel HAM Fens. "Endothelial Cell Targeting by cRGD-Functionalized Polymeric Nanoparticles under Static and Flow Conditions." Nanomaterials 10, no. 7 (2020): 1353. https://www.mdpi.com/2079-4991/10/7/1353

“Abstract: Since αvβ3 integrin is a key component of angiogenesis in health and disease, Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide-functionalized nanocarriers have been investigated as vehicles for targeted delivery of drugs to the αvβ3 integrin-overexpressing neovasculature of tumors. In this work, PEGylated nanoparticles (NPs) based on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) functionalized with cyclic-RGD (cRGD), were evaluated as nanocarriers for the targeting of angiogenic endothelium. For this purpose, NPs (~300 nm) functionalized with cRGD with different surface densities were prepared by maleimide-thiol chemistry and their interactions with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were evaluated under different conditions using flow cytometry and microscopy. The cell association of cRGD-NPs under static conditions was time-, concentration- and cRGD density-dependent. The interactions between HUVECs and cRGD-NPs dispersed in cell culture medium under flow conditions were also time- and cRGD density-dependent. When washed red blood cells (RBCs) were added to the medium, a 3 to 8-fold increase in NPs association to HUVECs was observed. Moreover, experiments conducted under flow in the presence of RBC at physiologic hematocrit and shear rate, are a step forward in the prediction of in vivo cell–particle association. This approach has the potential to assist development and high-throughput screening of new endothelium-targeted nanocarriers. Keywords: nanoparticles; endothelial cells; RGD; targeting; physiological flow; PLGA”


PLGA-PEG-PLGA Thermogel from PolySciTech used in development of large-molecule (protein) drug delivery system

Friday, July 17, 2020, 10:46 AM ET




Proteins are biomacromolecules which have a wide array of uses ranging from structural to biochemical enzymes and signal molecules. Naturally, this class of molecules provides for an incredibly powerful opportunity to develop highly effective drugs against a variety of disease states. The problem with proteins, however, is that they are a very large molecule and susceptible to being damaged (denatured) either in the stomach if ingested or by processing and preparation if formulated for injection. These require unique strategies for their drug delivery. Recently, researchers at University of Massachusetts and Merck & Co, Inc., have utilized PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogels (AK092, AK097) for developing an injectable protein delivery system. They used this to test delivery of insulin, albumin, and immunoglobulin G as model proteins and this method has promise to provide for improved delivery of protein therapeutics in the future. Read more: Dutta, Kingshuk, Ritam Das, Jing Ling, Rafael Mayoral Monibas, Ester Carballo-Jane, Ahmet Kekec, Danqing Dennis Feng et al. "In Situ Forming Injectable Thermoresponsive Hydrogels for Controlled Delivery of Biomacromolecules." ACS Omega (2020). https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acsomega.0c02009

“Due to their relatively large molecular sizes and delicate nature, biologic drugs such as peptides, proteins, and antibodies often require high and repeated dosing, which can cause undesired side effects and physical discomfort in patients and render many therapies inordinately expensive. To enhance the efficacy of biologic drugs, they could be encapsulated into polymeric hydrogel formulations to preserve their stability and help tune their release in the body to their most favorable profile of action for a given therapy. In this study, a series of injectable, thermoresponsive hydrogel formulations were evaluated as controlled delivery systems for various peptides and proteins, including insulin, Merck proprietary peptides (glucagon-like peptide analogue and modified insulin analogue), bovine serum albumin, and immunoglobulin G. These hydrogels were prepared using concentrated solutions of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)–block-poly(ethylene glycol)–block-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA–PEG–PLGA), which can undergo temperature-induced sol–gel transitions and spontaneously solidify into hydrogels near the body temperature, serving as an in situ depot for sustained drug release. The thermoresponsiveness and gelation properties of these triblock copolymers were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and oscillatory rheology, respectively. The impact of different hydrogel-forming polymers on release kinetics was systematically investigated based on their hydrophobicity (LA/GA ratios), polymer concentrations (20, 25, and 30%), and phase stability. These hydrogels were able to release active peptides and proteins in a controlled manner from 4 to 35 days, depending on the polymer concentration, solubility nature, and molecular sizes of the cargoes. Biophysical studies via size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and circular dichroism (CD) indicated that the encapsulation and release did not adversely affect the protein conformation and stability. Finally, a selected PLGA–PEG–PLGA hydrogel system was further investigated by the encapsulation of a therapeutic glucagon-like peptide analogue and a modified insulin peptide analogue in diabetic mouse and minipig models for studies of glucose-lowering efficacy and pharmacokinetics, where superior sustained peptide release profiles and long-lasting glucose-lowering effects were observed in vivo without any significant tolerability issues compared to peptide solution controls. These results suggest the promise of developing injectable thermoresponsive hydrogel formulations for the tunable release of protein therapeutics to improve patient’s comfort, convenience, and compliance.”


N3-PEG-PLGA, Fluorescent-PLGAs from PolySciTech used in development of targeted nanoparticles as part of cancer immunotherapy

Wednesday, July 8, 2020, 3:29 PM ET




Immunotherapy against cancer is a promising field in which the human body’s own immune system is used to target the cancer directly. Recently, researchers at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Levine Cancer Institute used N3-PEG-PLGA (AI091), PEG-PLGA (AK104), FITC-PLGA (AV016), and CY5-PLGA (AV032) from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) to produce targeted nanoparticles to target immune cells and induce them to attack cancer cells. This research holds promise to provide for improved therapies against this fatal class of diseases. Read more: Au, Kin Man, Steven I. Park, and Andrew Z. Wang. "Trispecific natural killer cell nanoengagers for targeted chemoimmunotherapy." Science Advances 6, no. 27 (2020): eaba8564. https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/6/27/eaba8564.abstract

“Abstract: Activation of the innate immune system and natural killer (NK) cells has been a key effort in cancer immunotherapy research. Here, we report a nanoparticle-based trispecific NK cell engager (nano-TriNKE) platform that can target epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)–overexpressing tumors and promote the recruitment and activation of NK cells to eradicate these cancer cells. Moreover, the nanoengagers can deliver cytotoxic chemotherapeutics to further improve their therapeutic efficacy. We have demonstrated that effective NK cell activation can be achieved by the spatiotemporal coactivation of CD16 and 4-1BB stimulatory molecules on NK cells with nanoengagers, and the nanoengagers are more effective than free antibodies. We also show that biological targeting, either through radiotherapy or EGFR, is critical to the therapeutic effects of nanoengagers. Last, EGFR-targeted nanoengagers can augment both NK-activating agents and chemotherapy (epirubicin) as highly effective anticancer agents, providing robust chemoimmunotherapy.”


PLGA from PolySciTech used in development of treatment for MRSA infected wounds

Wednesday, July 8, 2020, 3:27 PM ET



Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a wound-infecting pathogen that leads to significant causes of morbidity and mortality which is difficult to treat due to its resistance against most common antibiotics. Recently, researchers at Pusan National University (Korea) used PLGA (AP037) from PolySciTech (www.poyscitech.com) to develop nitrosoglutathione delivery nanoparticles to provide for treatment against wound infection. This research holds promise to provide for more effective treatments against MRSA infections in the future. Read more: Lee, Juho, Dongmin Kwak, Hyunwoo Kim, Jihyun Kim, Shwe Phyu Hlaing, Nurhasni Hasan, Jiafu Cao, and Jin-Wook Yoo. "Nitric Oxide-Releasing S-Nitrosoglutathione-Conjugated Poly (Lactic-Co-Glycolic Acid) Nanoparticles for the Treatment of MRSA-Infected Cutaneous Wounds." Pharmaceutics 12, no. 7 (2020): 618.

“Abstract: S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) has emerged as a potent agent for the treatment of infected cutaneous wounds. However, fabrication of GSNO-containing nanoparticles has been challenging due to its high hydrophilicity and degradability. The present study aimed to fabricate nanoparticles using newly synthesized GSNO-conjugated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) (GSNO-PLGA; GPNPs). Since hydrophilic GSNO was covalently bound to hydrophobic PLGA, loss of GSNO during the nanoparticle fabrication process was minimized, resulting in sufficient loading efficiency (2.32% of GSNO, 0.07 μmol/mg of NO). Real-time NO release analysis revealed biphasic NO release by GPNPs, including initial burst release within 3 min and continuous controlled release for up to 11.27 h, due to the differential degradation rates of the –SNO groups located at the surface and inside of GPNPs. Since GPNPs could deliver NO more efficiently than GSNO in response to increased interaction with bacteria, the former showed enhanced antibacterial effects against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at the same equivalent concentrations of NO. Finally, the facilitating effects of GPNPs on infected wound healing were demonstrated in MRSA-challenged full-thickness wound mouse model. Collectively, the results suggested GPNPs as an ideal nanoparticle formulation for the treatment of MRSA-infected cutaneous wounds. Keywords: S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO); poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA); nitric oxide; nitric oxide-releasing nanoparticles; GSNO-conjugated PLGA; methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); infected wound healing”


PLGA-PEG-PLGA Thermogel used in Ocular Drug Delivery Application

Wednesday, July 8, 2020, 3:26 PM ET




There are many diseased which affect the eyes and can lead to blindness including secondary cataracts. Delivery of medicines to the ocular region is difficult due to limited flow. Recently, researchers at Rowan University used PLGA-PEG-PLGA (AK097) from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) to create an injectable ocular gel for drug delivery applications. This research holds promise to prevent disease-related blindness. Read more: Osorno, Laura L. "Novel injectable PLGA-PEG-PLGA self-assembled hydrogels for the extended and controlled release of DNA nanocarriers to prevent secondary cataracts." Rowan University PhD Thesis (2020). https://rdw.rowan.edu/etd/2822/

“Cataracts are the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. There are over 20 million cataract surgeries each year, and these cases are expected to double within the next ten years. Over 40% of adults and nearly all children develop secondary cataracts, or posterior capsule opacification (PCO), following cataract surgery. Currently, Nd:YAG laser therapy is used to treat PCO; however, laser therapy is not available worldwide and treatment may have adverse effects on surrounding ocular tissues. Thus, there is a considerable unmet need for more efficacious and convenient treatments to prevent PCO. Injectable, stimuli-responsive gels were designed using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)) triblock copolymer and poly(L-Lysine). Hydrogel formulations with lactic acid to glycolic acid ratio of 15/1, at compositions between 14 and 25% (w/v), PLGA/PEG ratio of 2/1, and PLL concentrations between 10 and 40% (w/v) allowed for over 90% light transmittance, gel formation at 35 °C, and controlled release of 3DNA® nanocarriers loaded with doxorubicin with the G8 monoclonal antibody conjugated (3DNA®:DOX:G8) for over four weeks. The physical and morphological states of this novel, thermo-sensitive hydrogel can be easily tailored for the purpose of modulating drug delivery utilizing nucleic acids. This technology offers a more effective and efficient method of ocular therapy by providing controlled delivery of 3DNA conjugates designed to specifically target cells that cause PCO. Our US patent pending technology has high potential as a more efficacious delivery method for a wide range of other therapeutics to treat a number of ocular diseases.”


mPEG-PLGA from PolySciTech used in development of nanoparticles for liver-cancer therapy

Tuesday, June 30, 2020, 9:11 AM ET



Liver cancer is a very common and often fatal form of cancer that has limited treatment options outside of surgical resection. Recently, researchers at Johns Hopkins University utilized mPEG-PLGA (AK037) from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) to create bortezomib-loaded nanoparticles as a treatment option for liver cancer. This research holds promise for improved therapies against this fatal disease. Read more: Zhou, Yang. "Development of Bortezomib-Loaded Nanoparticles for Locoregional Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma." PhD diss., Johns Hopkins University, 2020. https://jscholarship.library.jhu.edu/handle/1774.2/62729

“Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the 6th most common cancer and the 4th leading cause of carcinoma-related death worldwide; yet there no curative chemotherapy strategy available for unresectable HCC. Bortezomib (BTZ) is a proteasome inhibitor that is FDA-approved for multiple myeloma and certain subtypes of chronic myelogenous leukemia; and in drug screening tests it shows promising potency in HCC cells. Systemic administration at required doses proves to be toxic in mice, however, repeated intra-tumoral injections results in tumor regression. The objective of this study is to develop a BTZ-loaded nanoparticle that can lower the systemic toxicity through local release of BTZ over several days. The BTZ-loaded nanoparticles were prepared by a facile assembly technique combining flash nanocomplexation (FNC) and flash nanoprecipitation (FNP), achieving high uniformity, stability, and adjustability by controlling the input parameters during preparation process. In the pilot in vivo study, the BTZ-loaded nanoparticles demonstrated local retention for more than 10 days in tumor tissue following intratumoral injection and exerted similar tumor-killing effect with same dose, yet less injection frequency as compared to free BTZ. The BTZ-loaded nanoparticles exhibited potential as a locoregional delivery system to provide a new therapeutic modality for future HCC treatment”


Mal-PEG-PLGA from PolySciTech used in development of bevacizumab-nanoparticle based therapy for treatment of colorectal cancer

Friday, June 26, 2020, 10:00 AM ET



Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world and is very difficult to treat effectively. Recently, Researchers at i3S, INEB, and Universidade do Porto (Portugal) used PLGA-PEG-Mal (AI110) from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) as part of development of targeted nanoparticles loaded with bevacizumab to treat colon cancer. This research holds promise to improve therapies against this disease. Read more: Baião, Ana, Flávia Sousa, Ana Vanessa Oliveira, Carla Oliveira, and Bruno Sarmento. "Effective intracellular delivery of bevacizumab via PEGylated polymeric nanoparticles targeting the CD44v6 receptor in colon cancer cells." Biomaterials Science (2020). https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2020/bm/d0bm00556h/unauth#!divAbstract

“Abstract: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common and deadly cancers in the world, mainly due to its metastatic and metabolic ability. The CD44 receptor isoform containing exon 6 (CD44v6) is a transmembrane protein that plays an important role in the establishment of tumors and metastasis, which make this molecule a potential target for therapy and diagnosis of tumors. Aiming at a targeted therapy, the anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody (mAb) bevacizumab was loaded into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-polyethylene glycol (PLGA-PEG) nanoparticles (NPs) functionalized with an antibody fragment (Fab) specific for CD44v6-expressing human cancer cells. The sizes of NPs were in the range of 150–250 nm and they had a negative charge between −5 and −10 mV, with an association efficiency (AE) of bevacizumab of 86%. v6 Fab-PLGA-PEG NPs containing bevacizumab specifically bonded to the CD44v6 cell surface receptor and exhibited higher internalization into CD44v6+ epithelial cells than bare and (−) Fab-PLGA-PEG NPs. To understand the biological effect of NP targeting, the intracellular levels of bevacizumab and VEGF were evaluated after the incubation of targeted and untargeted NPs. The intracellular levels of bevacizumab were significantly higher in cells incubated with v6 Fab-PLGA-PEG NPs and these NPs resulted in a significant decrease in the intracellular VEGF compared to untargeted NPs and free bevacizumab. PLGA-PEG NPs, surface-functionalized with a v6-specific Fab, have the potential to intracellularly deliver bevacizumab into CD44v6 expressing cancer cells.”


PLGA from PolySciTech used in development of laser-activated ocular delivery implant

Monday, June 22, 2020, 4:27 PM ET




Several chronic ocular diseases can be treated by direct delivery of medicinal molecules into the ocular space. However, performing repeat ocular injections is inconvenient for both patient and practitioner. Recently, researchers at University of Cincinnati used PLGA (AP049) from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) to create a laser-triggered implant for delivery of controlled dosage drugs against macular degeneration and other ocular diseases. This research holds promise to prevent blindness. Read more: He, Xingyu, Zheng Yuan, Samantha Gaeke, Winston W. Kao, Daniel Miller, Basil Williams, and Yoonjee Park. "Laser-activated drug implant for controlled release to the posterior segment of the eye." bioRxiv (2020). https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.06.17.111641v1.abstract

“Abstract: Posterior segment eye diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic macular edema (DME) and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) are serious choric diseases that may result in vision loss. The current standard of care for the posterior segment eye diseases involves frequent intravitreal injections or intravitreally injectable sustained-release implants. However, dosage is not controllable once the implant is inserted in the vitreous, resulting in serious local side effects, such as elevated intraocular pressure and cataract formation. We previously developed a size-exclusive nanoporous biodegradable PLGA capsule and combined with light-activatable drug-encapsulated liposomes, to create a lightactivated dose-controllable implant for posterior eye disease treatment. We demonstrated the stability and safety of the implant in rabbit eyes for 6 months. In this study, we focused on the drug release from the dose-controllable implant by laser irradiation both in vitro and in vivo. Drug release kinetics upon laser irradiation were analyzed with two different total dosages. Drug release by laser irradiation in the rabbit eyes was determined by fluorescence intensity. Optical and histology examination confirmed no damage on the retina. The results demonstrated feasibility of using the implant as a on-demand dose-controllable drug delivery system to the posterior segment of the eye.”


PLGA from PolySciTech used in development of Rifampicin-loaded nanoparticles for tuberculosis treatment with reduced liver toxicity

Wednesday, June 10, 2020, 1:50 PM ET



Some medicines are limited in their usefulness due to their organ-specific toxic side-effects. Notably, rifampicin, an antibiotic against tuberculosis, has liver toxicity which limits the quantity which can be prescribed. Recently, researchers at Assiut University (Egypt) and University of Cincinnati (USA) used PLGA (AP104) from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) to provide for nanoparticle delivery system of rifampicin with reduced liver toxicity. This research holds promise to improve treatment of tuberculosis. Read more: Hetta, Helal F., Esraa A. Ahmed, Ahmed G. Hemdan, Heba EM El-Deek, Saida Abd-Elregal, and Noura H. Abd Ellah. "Modulation of rifampicin-induced hepatotoxicity using poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles: a study on rat and cell culture models." Nanomedicine 0 (2020). https://www.futuremedicine.com/doi/abs/10.2217/nnm-2020-0001

“Aim: Hepatotoxicity is the most serious adverse effect of rifampicin (RIF). We aimed to investigate the potential hepatoprotective effect of mannose-functionalized poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)(PLGA)/RIF nanoparticles (NPs) in rats as a possible promising approach to minimize RIF-induced hepatotoxicity. Materials & methods: Mannose-functionalized PLGA/RIF NPs were fabricated and characterized in vitro, then the hepatoprotective effect of optimized NPs was studied on rat and cell culture models. Results: Following intraperitoneal administration of RIF NPs into rats, highly significant differences in levels of serum transaminases and oxidative stress markers, associated with significant differences in expression of Bax and Bcl-2 genes between NPs- and free RIF-treated groups, revealing the hepatoprotective potential of NPs. Conclusion: RIF NPs may represent a promising therapeutic approach for tuberculosis via reducing dose frequency and consequently, RIF-induced hepatotoxicity. Keywords: hepatotoxicity mannose nanoparticles PLGA rifampicin tuberculosis”


PLGA-PEG-NHS/PLGA-PEG-COOH from PolySciTech used in development of nanoparticles for pancreatic cancer treatment

Wednesday, June 10, 2020, 1:47 PM ET




In the early stages of development, pancreatic cancer presents relatively little in terms of symptoms which unfortunately makes it very difficult to detect until later stages when it may be too late to effectively treat. This means pancreatic cancer treatment requires aggressive interventions and targeting in order to be effective. Recently, researchers at Queen's University Belfast, Dublin City University (Ireland), State University of New York, and Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center (USA) used PLGA-PEG-NHS (AI064) and PLGA-PEG-COOH (AI034) from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) to produce targeted nanoparticles against pancreatic cancer. This research holds promise to provide for improved therapies against this often fatal form of cancer in the future. Read more: Johnston, M.C., Nicoll, J.A., Redmond, K.M., Smyth, P., Greene, M.K., McDaid, W.J., Chan, D.K.W., Crawford, N., Stott, K.J., Fox, J.P. and Straubinger, N.L., 2020. DR5-targeted, chemotherapeutic drug-loaded nanoparticles induce apoptosis and tumor regression in pancreatic cancer in vivo models. Journal of Controlled Release. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168365920303230

“Highlights: The death receptor 5 pathway is upregulated in pancreatic cancer and correlates with poorer prognosis. Conjugation of AMG 655 to the nanoparticle surface renders it capable of inducing apoptosis via death receptor 5 in pancreatic cancer cell lines. FLIP downregulation increases response to TRAIL and nanoparticle conjugated AMG 655. Camptothecin entrapment causes downregulation of FLIP. CRISPR targeting shows conjugated AMG 655 efficacy is FADD and caspase 8 dependent. Abstract: Pancreatic cancer is usually advanced and drug resistant at diagnosis. A potential therapeutic approach outlined here uses nanoparticle (NP)-based drug carriers, which have unique properties that enhance intra-tumor drug exposure and reduce systemic toxicity of encapsulated drugs. Here we report that patients whose pancreatic cancers express elevated levels of Death Receptor 5 (DR5) and its downstream regulators/effectors FLIP, Caspase-8, and FADD had particularly poor prognoses. To take advantage of elevated expression of this pathway, we designed drug-loaded NPs with a surface-conjugated αDR5 antibody (AMG 655). Binding and clustering of the DR5 is a prerequisite for efficient apoptosis initiation, and the αDR5-NPs were indeed found to activate apoptosis in multiple pancreatic cancer models, whereas the free antibody did not. The extent of apoptosis induced by αDR5-NPs was enhanced by down-regulating FLIP, a key modulator of death receptor-mediated activation of caspase-8. Moreover, the DNA topoisomerase-1 inhibitor camptothecin (CPT) down-regulated FLIP in pancreatic cancer models and enhanced apoptosis induced by αDR5-NPs. CPT-loaded αDR5-NPs significantly increased apoptosis and decreased cell viability in vitro in a caspase-8- and FADD-dependent manner consistent with their expected mechanism-of-action. Importantly, CPT-loaded αDR5-NPs markedly reduced tumor growth rates in vivo in established pancreatic tumor models, inducing regressions in one model. These proof-of-concept studies indicate that αDR5-NPs loaded with agents that downregulate or inhibit FLIP are promising candidate agents for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.”


Mal-PEG-PLGA/PEG-PLGA from PolySciTech used in development of nanoparticle-adjuvant vaccines

Wednesday, June 10, 2020, 1:46 PM ET



Vaccines act to induce the human immune system to recognize and attack pathogens preventing future infections. The role of an adjuvant in a vaccine is to ensure that the appropriate immune response is elicited by the vaccine to provide for the protection. Recently, researchers at Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Monash University (Australia), Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, and University of Florida used mPEG-PLGA (AK101) and Mal-PEG-PLGA (AI109) from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) to create nanoparticles for immune response. This research holds promise to enable the development of more effective vaccine strategies. Read more: Wilson, Kirsty L., Gregory P. Howard, Heather Coatsworth, Rhoel R. Dinglasan, Hai-Quan Mao, and Magdalena Plebanski. "Biodegradable PLGA-b-PEG Nanoparticles Induce T Helper 2 (Th2) Immune Responses and Sustained Antibody Titers via TLR9 Stimulation." Vaccines 8, no. 2 (2020): 261. https://www.mdpi.com/2076-393X/8/2/261

“Abstract: Sustained immune responses, particularly antibody responses, are key for protection against many endemic infectious diseases. Antibody responses are often accompanied by T helper (Th) cell immunity. Herein we study small biodegradable poly (ethylene glycol)-b-poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PEG-b-PLGA NPs, 25–50 nm) as antigen- or adjuvant-carriers. The antigen carrier function of PEG-b-PLGA NPs was compared against an experimental benchmark polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs, 40–50 nm), both conjugated with the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA-PS NPs, and OVA-PEG-b-PLGA NPs). The OVA-PEG-b-PLGA NPs induced sustained antibody responses to Day 120 after two immunizations. The OVA-PEG-b-PLGA NPs as a self-adjuvanting vaccine further induced IL-4 producing T-helper cells (Th2), but not IFN-γ producing T-cells (Th1). The PEG-b-PLGA NPs as a carrier for CpG adjuvant (CpG-PEG-b-PLGA NPs) were also tested as mix-in vaccine adjuvants comparatively for protein antigens, or for protein-conjugated to PS NPs or to PEG-b-PLGA NPs. While the addition of this adjuvant NP did not further increase T-cell responses, it improved the consistency of antibody responses across all immunization groups. Together these data support further development of PEG-b-PLGA NPs as a vaccine carrier, particularly where it is desired to induce Th2 immunity and achieve sustained antibody titers in the absence of affecting Th1 immunity. Keywords: nanoparticle; adjuvant; vaccine; antibody; immune response”


Thermogelling PLGA-PEG-PLGA from PolySciTech used in development of ocular treatment against secondary cataract formation

Tuesday, June 2, 2020, 10:15 AM ET



Cataracts are a common ocular problem and can lead to blindness. Unfortunately, even after cataract removal, there is a common incidence of secondary cataracts which can also obstruct vision. Recently, researchers at Rowan University used PLGA-PEG-PLGA (AK097) from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) to develop an ocular Thermogel system for treatment of secondary cataracts. This research holds promise to improve therapies against development of blindness even after cataract removal. Read more: Osorno, Laura L., Jamie DR Medina, Daniel E. Maldonado, Robert J. Mosley, and Mark E. Byrne. "Extended Release of Doxorubicin-Loaded 3DNA Nanocarriers from In-Situ Forming, Self-Assembled Hydrogels." Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics (2020). https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/jop.2019.0145

“Purpose: Cataracts are the leading cause of blindness worldwide, resulting in over 30 million surgeries each year. These cases are expected to double within the next 10 years. About 25% of all patients develop secondary cataracts or posterior capsule opacification (PCO) postsurgery. PCO is a vision impairment disorder that develops from myofibroblasts migration and contraction that deforms the capsule surrounding the lens. Currently, Nd:YAG laser therapy is used to treat PCO; however, laser is not available worldwide and adverse side effects may arise. Thus, there is a considerable unmet need for more efficacious and convenient preventive treatments for PCO. Our work focuses on engineering an innovative, prophylactic sustained release platform for DNA-based nanocarriers to further reduce the incidence of PCO. Methods: Novel, optically clear, self-assembled poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-b-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG) triblock copolymer hydrogels were used for the sustained release of the DNA-based nanocarriers (3DNA®) loaded with cytotoxic doxorubicin (DOX) and targeted with a monoclonal antibody called G8 (3DNA:DOX:G8), which is specific to cells responsible for PCO. Results: The 29 (w/v)% polymer hydrogels with the 3DNA nanocarriers presented over 80% of light transmittance, soft mechanical properties (


PLGA from PolySciTech used in research on Polymer-Magnesium composite stents for treatment of heart disease

Wednesday, May 27, 2020, 2:45 PM ET




Heart disease is the leading cause of death in USA and is often characterized by closing of arteries feeding oxygenated blood to the heart leading to a heart attack. Non-resorbable stents have been applied to hold the vessels open, but these have drawbacks for long-term usage due to tissue reaction against the stents leading to reclosure of the vessel. Recently, researchers at University of California Riverside used PLGA (AP089) from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) to create polymer-magnesium composite vascular stents for use in treatment of heart disease. This research holds promise to improve cardiovascular therapies in the future. Read more: Jiang, Wensen, Chaoxing Zhang, Larry Tran, Sebo Gene Wang, Ammar Dilshad Hakim, and Huinan Hannah Liu. "Engineering Nano-to-micron Patterned Polymer Coatings on Bioresorbable Magnesium for Controlling Human Endothelial Cell Adhesion and Morphology." ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering (2020). https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acsbiomaterials.0c00642

“Abstract: Surface patterning is an attractive approach to modify the surface of biomaterials for modulating cell activities and enhancing performance of medical implants without involving typical chemical changes to the implants such as adding growth factors, antibiotics, and drugs. In this study, nano-to-micron patterns were engineered on thermoplastic and thermoset polymer coatings on bioresorbable magnesium (Mg) substrates to control the cellular responses and material degradation, for vascular applications. Capillary force lithography (CFL) was modified and integrated with spray coating to fabricate well-aligned nano-to-micron patterns on the thermoplastic poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and thermoset poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) coatings on Mg substrates. Specifically, a new process of molding-curing CFL was revised from the conventional CFL to successfully create nano-to-submicron patterns on thermoset PGS for the first time. The nano-to-micron patterned polymer coatings of PLGA and PGS on Mg were carefully characterized, and their effects on cell adhesion and morphology were investigated through direct culture with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. The results showed that the 3000-nm parallel grooves could effectively elongate the HUVECs while the 740-nm parallel grooves tended to reduce the spreading of HUVECs. The PLGA coatings reduced the degradation of Mg substrates more than that of the PGS coatings in the direct culture with HUVECs in vitro. CFL-based methods coupled with spray coating should be further studied as a non-chemical approach for creating nano-to-micron patterned polymer coatings on Mg-based substrates of various size and shape, which may present a new direction for improving the performance of Mg-based bioresorbable vascular devices toward potential clinical translation.”


PLGA from PolySciTech used in development of Rapamycin-delivery microparticles for arthritis treatment

Wednesday, May 13, 2020, 3:09 PM ET


Arthritis is a disease driven by several causes but categorized by an immune response in the cartilidge which leads to damage of the tissue. Rapamycin modulates this immune response and can reduce the progression of arthritis. Recently, researchers at Indian Institute of Science (India) used PLGA (AP041) from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) to develop Rapamycin-releasing microparticles. This research holds promise to provide for treatment against arthritis. Read more: Dhanabalan, Kaamini M., Vishal K. Gupta, and Rachit Agarwal. "Rapamycin-PLGA microspheres induce autophagy and prevent senescence in chondrocytes and exhibit long in vivo residence." bioRxiv (2020). https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.06.027136v1.abstract

“Osteoarthritis (OA) is a joint disease that results in progressive destruction of articular cartilage and the adjoining subchondral bone. The current treatment is focused on symptomatic relief due to the absence of disease-modifying drugs. The primary cells of the cartilage, chondrocytes, have limited regenerative capacity and when they undergo stress due to trauma or with aging, they senesce or become apoptotic. Autophagy, a cellular homeostasis mechanism has a protective role in OA during stress but gets downregulated in OA. Rapamycin, a potent immunomodulator, has shown promise in OA treatment by autophagy activation and is known to prevent senescence. However, its clinical translation for OA is hampered due to systemic toxicity as high and frequent doses are required. Hence, there is a need to develop suitable delivery carriers that can result in sustained and controlled release of the drug in the joint. In this study, we have fabricated rapamycin encapsulated poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) based carriers that induced autophagy and prevented cellular senescence in human chondrocytes. The microparticle (MP) delivery system showed sustained release of drug for several weeks. Rapamycin-microparticles protected in-vitro cartilage mimics from degradation, allowing sustained production of sGAG, and demonstrated a prolonged senescence preventive effect in vitro under oxidative and genomic stress conditions. These microparticles also exhibited a long residence time of more than 19 days in the joint after intra-articular injections in murine knee joints. Such particulate systems are a promising candidate for intra-articular delivery of rapamycin for treatment of osteoarthritis.”


PLGA-PEG-NH2 from PolySciTech used in development of photodynamic/x-ray therapy against colorectal cancer

Wednesday, May 13, 2020, 11:53 AM ET




Researchers at University of New South Wales, The University of Sydney, and Macquarie University (Australia) used PLGA-PEG-NH2 (AI058) from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) to create photosentizing nanoparticles to apply in conjunction with X-ray therapy to treat cancer cells. This research holds promise to provide for improved cancer therapies. Read more: Deng, Wei, Kelly J. McKelvey, Anna Guller, Alexey Fayzullin, Jared M. Campbell, Sandhya Clement, Abbas Habibalahi et al. "Application of Mitochondrially Targeted Nanoconstructs to Neoadjuvant X-ray-Induced Photodynamic Therapy for Rectal Cancer." ACS Central Science (2020). https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acscentsci.9b01121

“In this work, we brought together two existing clinical techniques used in cancer treatment—X-ray radiation and photodynamic therapy (PDT), whose combination termed X-PDT uniquely allows PDT to be therapeutically effective in deep tissue. To this end, we developed mitochondrially targeted biodegradable polymer poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanocarriers incorporating a photosensitizer verteporfin, ultrasmall (2–5 nm) gold nanoparticles as radiation enhancers, and triphenylphosphonium acting as the mitochondrial targeting moiety. The average size of the nanocarriers was about 160 nm. Upon X-ray radiation our nanocarriers generated cytotoxic amounts of singlet oxygen within the mitochondria, triggering the loss of membrane potential and mitochondria-related apoptosis of cancer cells. Our X-PDT strategy effectively controlled tumor growth with only a fraction of radiotherapy dose (4 Gy) and improved the survival rate of a mouse model bearing colorectal cancer cells. In vivo data indicate that our X-PDT treatment is cytoreductive, antiproliferative, and profibrotic. The nanocarriers induce radiosensitization effectively, which makes it possible to amplify the effects of radiation. A radiation dose of 4 Gy combined with our nanocarriers allows equivalent control of tumor growth as 12 Gy of radiation, but with greatly reduced radiation side effects (significant weight loss and resultant death).”


PLGA from PolySciTech used in development of nanoparticle therapy for skin cancer

Wednesday, May 13, 2020, 11:52 AM ET



Photodynamic therapy is a process in which cancer cells are targeted with a chemical substance that remains dormant until it is illuminated by a specific wavelength of light which activates it killing the cell. This two-step process minimizes damage to healthy cells which is a common side-effect of conventional chemotherapy. Recently, researchers at Wroclaw University (Poland) used PLGA (AP022) from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) to develop photosensitizing nanoparticles which are uptaken into melanoma (skin cancer) cells. This research holds promise to provide for improved cancer therapies in the future. Read more: Bazylińska, Urszula, Dominika Wawrzyńczyk, Anna Szewczyk, and Julita Kulbacka. "Engineering and biological assessment of double core nanoplatform for co-delivery of hybrid fluorophores to human melanoma." Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry (2020): 111088. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0162013420301161

“Abstract: We investigated new development in photodynamic therapy (PDT) aiming at enhanced tumor selectivity and biocompatibility, which included application of a third-generation photosensitizing agent, i.e. xanthene-origin Rose Bengal (RB) co-encapsulated with up-converting NaYF4 nanoparticles (NPs) co-doped with lanthanide ions: Er3+ (2%) and Yb3+ (20%). The hybrid fluorophores were applied as components of double core nanocarriers (NCs) obtained by double (multiple) emulsion solvent evaporation process. Next to improve the biocompatibility and photodynamic activity, biodegradable polymer: poly(lactide-co-glycolide) – PLGA and non-ionic surfactants with different hydrophobicity: Span 80 and Cremophor A25, were used. After the engineering process, controlled by dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements, ζ-potential evaluation, transmission electron and atomic force microscopy (TEM and AFM) imaging, as well as optical analysis provided by measurements of the up-conversion emission spectra and luminescence kinetics for encapsulated only NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+ NPs and co-encapsulated RB + NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+ molecules, spherical polyester NCs with average size


These posts are syndicated from John Garner's blog at http://jgakinainc.blogspot.com/ where you can post a question or comment. (Load took 0.40391993522644 seconds)

 

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